Day 2 :
Clemson University, USA
Keynote: The secondary supernova machine: Gravitational compression, stored Coulomb energy, and SNII displays
Time : 09:30-10:05
Bradley S Meyer has completed his PhD from the University of Chicago and Postdoctoral studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has been a Professor at Clemson University since 1990. His research focuses on nucleosynthesis, that is, formation of the chemical elements in the early universe, stars, and stellar explosions, and manifestations of nucleosynthesis in astronomy and cosmochemistry. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals.
The author wants to present an uncommon description of an energy transfer process in core-collapse supernovae: namely, a gravitational machine that increases Coulomb energy within nuclei via silicon burning. Excess of that Coulomb energy is returned weeks and months later by weak nuclear decays (EC and beta+). Those decays energize several observable quantities: gamma-ray lines, X-ray luminosity, free chemical energy and optical light curves. The delay of the energy return is essential for visibility of these activations. These secondary displays have rich literatures; but expressing them as observables of a supernova machine, whose action can be summarized as gravitational compression→Coulomb nuclear energy increase→release of excess of that Coulomb nuclear energy by electroweak decays→supernova displays, is novel.
Nanjing University, China
Time : 10:05-10:40
Qiuhe Peng is mainly engaged in nuclear astrophysics, particle astrophysics and Galactic Astronomy research. In the field of Nuclear Astrophysics, his research project involved a neutron star (pulsar), the supernova explosion mechanism and the thermonuclear reaction inside the star, the synthesis of heavy elements and interstellar radioactive element such as the origin of celestial 26Al. In addition, through his lectures, he establishes Nuclear Astrophysics research in China, He was invited by Peking University, by Tsinghua University (both in Beijing and in Taiwan) and by nuclear physics institutes in Beijing, Shanghai, Lanzhou to give lectures on Nuclear Astrophysics for many times. He has participated in the international academic conferences over 40 times and he visited more than 20 countries. In 1994, he visited eight institutes in USA to give lectures. He is the first Chinese Astrophysicist to visit NASA and to give a lecture on the topic, “Nuclear Synthesis of Interstellar 26Al”. In 2005, he visited USA twice and gave lectures in eight universities again. Inviting six astronomers of USA to give series lectures, he has hosted four consecutive terms summer school on gravitational wave astronomy. After the four summer school obvious effect, at least 20 young scholars in China in the field of gravitational wave astronomy specialized learning and research. 220 research papers by him have been published.
A key observation has been reported in 2013: an abnormally strong radial magnetic field near the GC is discovered. Firstly, we demonstrate that the radiations observed from the GC are hardly emitted by the gas of accretion disk which is prevented from approaching to the GC by the abnormally strong radial magnetic field and these radiations can't be emitted by the black hole model at the center. However, the dilemma of the black hole model at the GC be naturally solved in our model of super massive object with magnetic monopoles (MMs). Three predictions in our model are quantitatively in agreement with observations: 1. Plenty of positrons are produced from the direction of the GC with the rate is or so. This prediction is quantitatively confirmed by observation (); 2. A strong radial magnetic field is generated by some magnetic monopoles condensed in the core region of the super massive object and the magnetic field strength at the surface of the object is about 20-100 Gauss at ( is the Schwarzschild radius) or at . This prediction is quantitatively in agreement with the lower limit of the observed magnetic field ; 3. The surface temperature of the super-massive object in the galactic center is about 120K and the corresponding spectrum peak of the thermal radiation is at Hz in the sub-mm wavelength regime. This is quantitatively basically consistent with the recent observation. The conclusions are: It could be an astronomical observational evidence of the existence of MMs and no black hole is at the GC. Besides, making use of both the estimations for the space flux of MMs and nucleon decay catalyzed by MMs (called the RC effect) to obtain the luminosity of celestial objects by the RC effect. In terms of the formula for this RC luminosity we are able to present a unified treatment for various kinds of core collapsed supernovae, SNII, SNIb, SNIc, SLSN and the production mechanism for γ ray burst, as well as the heat source of the Earth’s core, the energy source needed for the white dwarf interior. This unified model can also be used to reasonably explain the possible association of the shot γ ray burst detected by the Fermi γ ray Burst Monitoring Satellite (GBM) with the September 2015 LIGO gravitational wave event GW150914.